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National Standards Project, Phase 2

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In April 2015, the National Autism Center released its review and analysis of interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on research conducted in the field from 2007 to 2012. This publication provides an update to the summary of empirical intervention literature (published in the National Standards Report in 2009) and includes studies evaluating interventions for adults (22+), which have never been systematically evaluated before now.

This project was designed to give educators, parents, practitioners, and organizations the information and resources they need to make informed choices about effective interventions that will offer children and adults on the spectrum the greatest hope for their future.

The National Autism Center began work on the second phase of the National Standards Project (NSP2) in 2011 to provide up-to-date information on the effectiveness of a broad range of interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There had been a great deal of new research published since 2007, the end of the period evaluated by Phase 1 of the National Standards Project (or NSP1).

Phase 2 (NSP2) reviewed studies published between 2007 and February of 2012. As in the first iteration of the NSP, the focus was an evaluation of educational and behavioral intervention literature for individuals with ASD. The review updated our summary of ASD treatment literature for children and youth under age 22. We updated our original findings, added information, and evaluated whether any of the “Emerging” interventions in NSP1 had moved into the “Established” or “Unestablished” categories in NSP2.

We also analyzed intervention outcome studies for individuals ages 22 years and older. Because the first phase of the NSP focused solely on interventions for individuals under age 22, the recent literature search for individuals ages 22+ spanned several decades. The earliest intervention outcome study for individuals ages 22+ was published in 1987.

Significant Findings, Phase 2

Findings Related to Interventions for Children and Adolescents:

Phase 2 of the National Standards Project (NSP2) reinforced the findings of Phase 1. For children and adolescents under age 22, there was even more empirical support for interventions that are behaviorally based.

We added two new categories of interventions and consolidated others to improve understanding of specific interventions. A detailed list of interventions is included in the Center’s newest publication, Findings and Conclusions: National Standards Project, Phase 2, was released in April 2015.

Findings Related to Interventions for Adults:

In spite of the burgeoning population of adults with ASD, there is little empirical research to guide intervention for this population. The overwhelming majority of research studies prior to the release of NSP2 focused on interventions for children and adolescents. In our review of all the existing adult intervention literature available at that time, only 27 studies met inclusion criteria for adults.

Because of the limited research on adult interventions, there was one Established intervention for adults identified in NSP2, as well as one intervention identified as Emerging.

More individuals with ASD than ever before are moving into adulthood and will require services, housing, and jobs. Because there has been so little research on adult interventions, the autism community has been able to provide only limited guidance related to best practices.

A number of the strategies we use with children and adolescents appear to also be effective with adults, delivered in a more developmentally appropriate way.

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What Makes Phase 2 Unique?

The Review of All Available Adult Intervention Outcome Literature.

NSP2 is the only systemic review of ASD interventions for individuals from birth through adulthood based on all the available intervention outcome literature published through February of 2012.

The Methodology.

Overwhelming amounts of information exist about autism treatments. In order to provide accurate information to individuals and families making intervention decisions, we must first determine what information is reliable and based on rigorous scientific research, and what is not.

Phase 2 utilized tools and evaluation strategies designed by the original expert panel. These included the Scientific Merit Rating Scale (SMRS), the Intervention Effects Ratings, and the Strength of Evidence Classification System. All three systems allow for critical and detailed analyses of how the research was conducted and the impact on participants. Because our methodology is transparent, it also allows for ongoing review and improvements in the scientific community.

Number of Studies Reviewed.

By combining the results of NSP1 and NSP2, we have produced the largest compilation of studies ever reviewed. The review provides the cumulative number of studies to support each one of the interventions identified. It is important to note that more studies were published in the few years covered by the NSP2 than in any previous similar timespan.

Our Expert Panel.

The National Autism Center has been unique in its collaboration with professionals. Throughout NSP1 and NSP2, our expert panel guided the process and was involved in all decisions related to the findings.

A Greater Emphasis on Evidence-based Interventions Within the Larger Framework of Evidence-based Practice.

Although the main focus of NSP1 and NSP2 was to identify interventions that have the most research support, it was not the only focus. We emphasized equally other key factors related to evidence-based practice that are essential to success.

Evidence-based practice includes the use of professional judgment, consideration of client and family values and preferences, and knowledge and understanding of the best research evidence. There is no longer any question about what works for individuals with ASD; scientific evidence identifies effective interventions. It is now necessary to understand how to best apply these interventions in real-world settings.

Note: The NSP2 expert panelists agreed to adapt the term “intervention” as opposed to “treatment” or “strategy.” Therefore, the results of NSP2 will discuss evidence-based interventions that should be used to inform a clinician’s evidence-based practice. This terminology may differ from others doing similar research, but we believe this is an important distinction — so parents and professionals understand the difference between an evidence-based intervention and the larger framework of evidence-based practice.

Dissemination, Education, and Training

The publication of Findings and Conclusions: National Standards Project, Phase 2in April of 2015 by the National Autism Center included:

  • Announcements of changes in interventions previously identified as “Emerging”
  • Detailed information about the movement and the quantity of studies that may or may not support each intervention
  • New categories to make the findings more accessible and understandable
  • A listing of interventions that have no empirical research
  • Recommendations for families, practitioners, and researchers

The Center also published and distributed the second edition of its manual for educators, “Evidence-based Practice and Autism in the Schools.” 
The Center distributed its new Parent Education Series video, based on a two-part training conducted in 2014 for military families across the country, courtesy of funding from Autism Speaks.

Relevance and Replication

The National Standards Project (Phases 1 and 2) are among seven recent, nationally recognized systematic reviews studying the effectiveness of ASD interventions.

Given their similarities, why are they significant?

In any science, it is critical to replicate results. Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the National Standards Project evaluated both single-subject  research and group design intervention outcome studies. Including both types of research design in the systematic review allowed us to evaluate simple and multi-component behavioral interventions. Similarly, the National Professional Development Center (NPDC) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) evaluated single-subject and group design studies resulting in similar findings.

However, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) did not include the vast majority of single-subject research studies, resulting in no evaluation of many applied behavior analytic interventions. This type of methodological difference will impact replication of results.

Replication by research groups builds consensus about what is necessary to improve outcomes for individuals with ASD. It is now a matter of getting practitioners and parents trained to implement these procedures.

Note: The CMS review utilized the classification system described in the National Standards Report.

Expert Panel, Phase 2 of the National Standards Project

Hanna C. Rue, Ph.D., BCBA-D (Chair)
Grace Baranek, Ph.D., OTR/L
Jane I. Carlson, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Alice Carter Ph.D.
Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D., BCBA
Ronnie Detrich, Ph.D.
Melanie DuBard, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Glen Dunlap, Ph.D.
Peter Gerhardt, Ed.D.
Lynne Gregory, Ph.D.
Robert H. Horner, Ph.D.
Kara Anne Hume, Ph.D.
James K. Luiselli, Ed.D., ABPP, BCBA-D
Daniel Martin, Ph.D., BCBA

Gail McGee, Ph.D.
Samuel L. Odom, Ph.D.
Cathy L. Pratt, Ph.D.
Patricia A. Prelock, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Robert F. Putnam, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Sally J. Rogers, Ph.D.
Carol M. Schall, Ph.D.
Ilene S. Schwartz, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Mark D. Shriver, Ph.D.
Tristram H. Smith, Ph.D.
Brenda Smith Myles, Ph.D.
Aubyn C. Stahmer, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Pamela J. Wolfberg, Ph.D.
John G. Youngbauer, Ph.D.

Results of the National Standards Project, Phase 2

Thank you for your interest in the most updated results of the National Standards Project!

If you are interested in downloading and viewing our publications, click here to download your free pdf reports.

Due to high demand, we are also making the reports available for purchase through our online bookstore.

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Articles Reviewed in Phase 2

Download article list reviewed in NSP2 (PDF)

To easily search the article list, use CTRL+F on PC or COMMAND+F on a Mac.

What follows is a full listing of articles reviewed in NSP2 and found in the behavioral and educational peer-reviewed intervention literature involving children, adolescent, and adults with ASD.

Adelinis, J. D., & Hagopian, L. P. (1999). The use of symmetrical “do” and “don’t” requests to interrupt ongoing activities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(4), 519-523.

Aherns, E. N., Lerman, D. C., Kodak, T., Worsdell, A. S., & Keegan, C. (2011). Further evaluation of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(1), 95-108.

Akmanoglu, N., & Tekin-Iftar, E. (2011). Teaching children with autism how to respond to the lures of strangers. Autism, 15(2), 205-222.

Allam, H., Eldine, N. G., & Helmy, G. (2008). Scalp acupuncture effect on language development in children with autism: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(2), 109-114.

Allen, K. D., Wallace, D. P., Renes, D., Bowen, S. L., & Burke, R. V. (2010). Use of video modeling to teach vocational skills to adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(3), 339 – 349.

Aman, M. G., McDougle, C. J., Scahill, L., Handen, B., Arnold, L. E. A., Johnson, C… Wagner, A. (2009). Medication and parent training in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavior problems: Results from a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(12), 1143-1154.

Anan, R. M., Warner, L. J., McGillvary, J. E., Chong, E. M., & Hines, S. J. (2008). Group intensive family training (GIFT) for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 23(3), 165-180.

Anderson, J., & Le, D. D. (2011). Abatement of intractable vocal stereotypy using an overcorrection procedure. Behavioral Interventions, 26(2), 134-146.

Angell, M. E., Nicholson, J. K., Watts, E. H., & Blum, C. (2011). Using a multicomponent adapted power card strategy to decrease latency during interactivity transitions for three children with developmental disabilities. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 26(4), 206-217.

Anson, H. M., Todd, J. T., & Cassaretto, K. J. (2008). Replacing overt verbal and gestural prompts with unobtrusive covert tactile prompting for students with autism. Behavior Research Methods, 40(4), 1106-1110.

Argott, P., Townsend, D. B., & Sturmey, P. (2008). Increasing the use of empathic statements in the presence of a non-verbal affective stimulus in adolescents with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(2), 341-352.

Arntzen, E., Tonnessen, I. R., & Brouwer, G. (2006). Reducing aberrant verbal behavior by building a repertoire of rational verbal behavior. Behavioral Interventions, 21, 177-193.

Arvans, R. K., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2009). Functional assessment and treatment of migraine reports and school absences in an adolescent with Asperger’s disorder. Education & Treatment of Children, 32(1), 151-166.

Asaro-Saddler, K., & Saddler, B. (2010). Planning instruction and self-regulation training: Effects on writers with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 77(1), 107-124.

Athens, E. S., Vollmer, T. R., & Sloman, K. N. (2008). An analysis of vocal stereotypy and therapist fading. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(2), 291-297.

Bagatell, N., Mirigliani, G., Patterson, C., Reyes, Y., & Test, L. (2010). Effectiveness of therapy ball chairs on classroom participation in children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(6), 895-903.

Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011). Addressing working memory in children with autism through behavioral interventions. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 267-276.

Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011). Further analysis of the effects of positive reinforcement on working memory in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 855-863.

Banda, D. R., Copple, K. S., Koul, R. K., Sancibrian, S. L., & Bogschutz, R. J. (2010). Video modeling interventions to teach spontaneous requesting using AAC devices to individuals with autism: A preliminary investigation. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(16), 1364-1372.

Banda, D. R., Hart, S. L., & Liu-Gitz, L. (2010). Impact of training peers and children with autism on social skills during center time activities in inclusive classrooms. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(4), 619-625.

Banda, D. R., McAfee, J. K., & Hart, S. L. (2009). Decreasing self-injurious behavior in a student with autism and Tourette syndrome through positive attention and extinction. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31(2), 144-156.

Barnoy, E. L., Najdowski, A. C., Tarbox, J. , Wilke, A. E., & Nollet, M. D. (2009). Evaluation of a multicomponent intervention for diurnal bruxism in a young child with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), 845-848.

Bartlett, S. M., Rapp, J. T., Krueger, T. K., & Henrickson, M. L. (2011). The use of response cost to treat splitting by a child with autism. Behavioral Intervention, 26(1), 76-83.

Bass, M. M., Duchowny, C. A., & Llabre, M. M. (2009). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(9), 1261-1267.

Bauminger, N. (2007). Brief report: Group social-mulitmodal intervention for HFASD. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1605-1615.

Bauminger, N. (2007). Brief report: Individual social-multi-modal intervention for HFASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1593-1604.

Beaumont, R., & Sofronoff, K. (2008). A multi-component social skills intervention for children with Asperger syndrome: The junior detective training program. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 49(7), 743-753.

Begeer, S., Gevers, C., Clifford, P., Verhoeve, M., Kat, K., Hoddenbach, E., & Boer, F. (2011). Theory of mind training in children with autism: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(8), 997-1006.

Benavides, C. A., & Poulson, C. L. (2009). Task interspersal and performance of matching tasks by preschoolers with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(3), 619-629.

Bennett, K., Reichow, B., & Wolery, M. (2011). Effects of structured teaching on the behavior of young children with disabilities. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 26(3), 143-152.

Bernad-Ripoll, S. (2007). Using a self-as-model video combined with social stories to help a child with Asperger syndrome understand emotions. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 22(2), 100-106.

Berstrom, R., Tarbox, J., & Gutshall, K. A. (2011). Behavioral intervention for domestic pet mistreatment in a young child with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 218-221.

Binnendyk, L., & Lucyshyn, J. M. (2009). A family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior: An empirical case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 47-62.

Bird, F., Dores, P. A., Moniz, D., & Robinson, J. (1989). Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94(1), 37-48.

Blair, K. S. C., Lee, I. S., Cho, S. J., & Dunlap, G. (2011). Positive behavior support through family-school collaboration for young children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 31(1), 22-36.

Blair, K. S. C., Umbreit, J., Dunlap, G., Gilson, J. (2007). Promoting inclusion and peer participation through assessment-based intervention. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 27(3), 134-147.

Blum-Dimaya, A., Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Hoch, H. (2010). Teaching children with autism spectrum disorders to play a video game using activity schedules and game-embedded simultaneous video modeling. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(3), 351-370.

Bock, M. A. (2007). The impact of social-behavioral learning strategy training on the social interaction skills of four students with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22(2), 88-95.

Bonggat, P. W., & Hall, L. J. (2010). Evaluation of the effects of sensory integration-based intervention by a preschool special education teacher. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 294-302.

Boso, M., Emanuele, E., Minazzi, V., Abbamonte, M., & Politi, P. (2007). Effects of long-term interactive music therapy on behavior profile and musical skills. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 13(7), 709-712.

Boudreau, E., & D’Entremont, B. (2010). Improving the pretend play skills of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders: The effects of video modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 22(4), 415-431.

Boyd, B., McDonough, S., Rupp, B., Khan, F., & Bodfish, J. (2011). Effects of a family-implemented treatment on the repetitive behaviors of children with autism. Journal of Autism And Developmental Disorders, 41(10), 1330-1341.

Britton, L. N., Carr, J. E., Landaburu, H. J., & Romick, K. S. (2002). The efficacy of noncontingent reinforcement as treatment for automatically reinforced stereotypy. Behavioral Interventions, 17, 93-103.

Brusa, E., & Richman, D. (2008). Developing stimulus control for occurrences of stereotypy exhibited by a child with autism. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 4(3), 264-269.

Buggey, T., Hoomes, G., Sherberger, M. E., & Williams, S. (2011). Facilitating social initiations of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders using video self-modeling. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 26(1), 25-36.

Burke, R. V., Andersen, M. N., & Bowen, S. L. (2010). Evaluation of two instruction methods to increase employment options for young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(6), 1223-1233.

Caballero, A., & Connell, J. E. (2010). Evaluation of the effects of social cue cards for preschool age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Journal of Behavior Assessment and Intervention in Children, 1(1), 2010.

Cale, S. I., Carr, E. G., Blakely-Smith, A., & Owen-DeSchryver, J. S. (2009). Context-based assessment and intervention for problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 33(6), 707-742.

Call, N. A., Pabico, R. S., Findley, A. J., & Valentino, A. L. (2011). Differential reinforcement with and without blocking as treatment for elopement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(4), 903-907.

Campbell, A., & Tincani, M. (2011). The power card strategy: Strength-based intervention to increase direction following of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(4), 240-249.

Cannella-Malone, H., Sigafoos, J., O’Reilly, M. O., de la Cruz, B., Edrisinha, C., & Lancioni, G. E. (2006). Comparing video prompting to video modeling for teaching daily living skills to six adults with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41(4), 344-356.

Carbone, V. J., Sweeney-Kerwin, E. J., Attanasio, V., & Kasper, T. (2010). Increasing the vocal responses of children with autism and developmental disabilities using manual sign mand training and prompt delay. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(4), 705-709.

Cardon, T., & Wilcox, M. (2011). Promoting imitation in young children with autism: A comparison of reciprocal imitation training and video modeling. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 654-666.

Carlson, B., McLaughlin, T. F., & Derby, K. M. (2009). Teaching preschool children with autism and developmental delays to write. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 7(1), 225-238.

Carlson, J. I., Luicelli, J. K., Slyman, A., & Markowski, A. (2008). Choice-making as intervention for public disrobing in children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Positive Interventions, 10(2), 86-90.

Carnahan, C., Musti-Rao, S., & Bailey, J. (2009). Promoting active engagement in small group learning experiences for students with autism and significant learning needs. Education & Treatment of Children, 32(1), 37-61.

Carter, A. S., Messinger, D. S., Stone, W. L., Celimi, S., Nahmias, A. S., & Yoder, P. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of Hanen’s ‘More than Words’ in toddlers with early autism symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(7), 741-752.

Cassella, M. D., Sidener, T. M., Sidener, D. W., & Progar, P. R. (2011). Response interruption and redirection for vocal stereotypy in children with autism: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(1), 169-173.

Cavkaytar, A., & Pollard, E. (2009). Effectiveness of parent and therapist collaboration program (PTCP) for teaching self-care and domestic skills to individuals with autism. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44(3), 381-395.

Chalfant, A. M., Rapee, R., & Carroll, L. (2007). Treating anxiety disorders in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1842-1857.

Chan, J. M., & O’Reilly, M. F. (2008). A social stories intervention package for students with autism in inclusive classroom settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 405-409.

Charlop, M. H., Dennis, B., Carpenter, M. H., & Greenberg, A. L. (2010). Teaching socially expressive behaviors to children with autism through video modeling. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(3), 371-393.

Cheng, Y., Chiang, H. C. Y. J., & Cheng, L. H. (2010). Enhancing empathy instruction using a collaborative virtual learning environment for children with autistic spectrum conditions. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1449-1458.

Chok, J. T., Demanche, J., Kennedy, M., & Studer, L. (2010). Utilizing physiological measures to facilitate phobia treatment with individuals with autism and intellectual disability: A case study. Behavioral Intervention, 25(4), 325-337.

Chok, J. T., Reed, D. D., Kennedy, A., & Bird, F. L. (2010). A single-case experimental analysis of the effects of ambient prism lenses for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Behavioral Analysis in Practice, 3(2), 42-51.

Cihak, D. F., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Comparing pictorial and video-modeling activity schedules during transitions for students with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(4), 763-771.

Coolican, J., Smith, I. M., & Bryson, S. E. (2010). Brief parent training in pivotal response treatment for preschoolers with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(12), 1321-1330.

Corbett, B. A., Gunther, J. R., Comins, D., Price, J., Ryan, N., Simon, D… Rios, T. (2010). Brief report: Theatre as therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(4), 505-511.

Corbett, B. A., Shickman, K., & Ferrer, E. (2008). Brief report: The effects of tomatis sound therapy on language in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(3), 562-566.

Cotugno, A. J. (2009). Social competence and social skills training and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(9), 1268-1277.

Cox, A. L., Gast, D. L., Luscre, D., & Ayres, K. M. (2009). The effects of weighted vests on appropriate in-seat behaviors of elementary-age students with autism and severe to profound intellectual disabilities. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 24(1), 17-26.

Crooke, P. J., Hendriz, R. E., & Rachman, J. Y. (2008). Brief report: Measuring the effectiveness of teaching social thinking to children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA). Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 38(3), 581-591.

Crozier, S., & Tincani, M. (2007). Effects of social stories on prosocial behavior of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1803-1814.

Cuvo, A. J., Godard, A., & Huckelfeldt, R. (2010). Training children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with an oral assessment. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(4), 681-696.

Cuvo, A. J., Reagan, A. L., & Ackerlund, J. (2010). Training children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with a physical exam. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(2), 168-185.

Davis, T. N., Durand, S., & Chan, J. M. (2011). The effects of a brushing procedure on stereotypical behavior. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1053-1058.

Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J… Vlaey, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125(1), 17-23.

De Mers, C. L., Tincani, M., Van Norman, R. K., & Higgins, K. (2009). Effects of music therapy on young children’s challenging behaviors: A case study. Music Therapy Perspectives, 27(2), 88-96.

Deitchman, C., Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Progar, P. R. (2010). Incorporating video feedback into self-management training to promote generalization of social initiations by children with autism. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(3), 475-488.

Delano, M. E. (2007). Improving written language performance of adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 345-351.

DeQuinzio, J. A., Townsend, D. B., & Poulson, C. L. (2008). The effects of forward chaining and contingent social interaction on the acquisition of complex sharing responses by children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(2), 264-275.

DeQuinzio, J. A., Townsend, D. B., Sturmey, P., & Poulson, C. L. (2007). Generalized imitation of facial models by children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 755-759.

DeRosier, M. E., Swick, D. C., David, N. O., McMillen, J. S., & Matthews, R. (2011). The efficacy of a social skills group intervention for improving social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(8), 1033-1043.

Devlin, S., Healy, O., Leader, G., & Hughes, B. (2011). Comparison of behavioral intervention and sensory-integration therapy in the treatment of challenging behavior. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(10), 1303-1320.

Dionne, M., & Martini, R. (2011). Floor time play with a child with autism: A single-subject study. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48(3), 196-203.

Dodd, S., Hupp, S. D., Jewell, J. D., & Krohn, E. (2008). Using parents and siblings during a social story intervention for two children diagnosed with PDD-NOS. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 20(3), 217-229.

Donnelly, J. L., Luyben, P. D., & Zan, C. S. (2009). Increasing eye contact toward learning materials in a toddler with autism. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 37(3), 170-176.

Drahota, A., Wood, J. J., Sze, K. M., & Van Dyke, M. (2011). Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on daily living skills in children with high-functioning autism and concurrent anxiety disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41(3), 257-265.

Egan, C. E., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Emergence of tacts following mand training in young children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(3), 691-696.

Elder, J., Donaldson, S., Kairilla, J., Valcante, G., Bendixen, R., Ferdig, R… Serrano, M. (2011). In-home training for fathers of children with autism: A follow up study and evaluation of four individual training components. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 20(3), 263-271.

Esch, B. E., Carr, J. E., & Grow, L. L. (2009). Evaluation of an enhanced stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to increase early vocalizations of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 225-241.

Falcomata, T. S., Roane, H. S., Feeney, B. J., & Stephenson, K. M. (2010). Assessment and treatment of elopement maintained by access to stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(3), 513-517.

Fava, L., & Strauss, K. (2010). Multi-sensory rooms: Comparing effects of the snoezelen and the stimulus preference environment on the behavior of adults with profound mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(1), 160-171.

Fava, L., Strauss, K., Giovanni, V., D’Elia, L., Arima, S., & Vicari, S. (2011). Effectiveness of a cross-setting complementary staff-and parent-mediated early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with ASD. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1479-1492.

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